Thursday, December 9, 2010

Study notes on Cobit: Managing projects

Scope, cost and schedule


Suppose that you're the software development manager of a publishing company. To create a new market, the company is considering developing a self-publishing platform for authors to publish their works (initiating a project).To help the CEO to decide to go ahead or not, you have gathered the rough requirements (deliverables) and estimated a rough cost (e.g., MOP1,000,000) and schedule (1 year). So, the CEO decided to go ahead and you have been assigned as the project manager for the project. Your mission is to ensure that the deliverables (scope) are delivered within the allocated cost and schedule (the three most important constraints for a project). This is called project management.

Good planning


Is this mission possible? You must make sure that for the given scope, the cost and schedule are reasonable. At the initiation phase, your estimate may be quite rough because there were no detailed requirements yet (so, you should add a large buffer to it, whose size depends on the level of details available). Now, you need to identify all the requirements in details and get a better estimate on the cost and schedule.
How? You could adopt a divide and conquer approach. First, you can break down the project into:

  1. A short upfront analysis to identify the features (which you will use to estimate the cost & duration): 3 days (according to previous experience)

  2. Development: ???

  3. System testing: ???


For each part, you can further divide it. For example, for the development part, you can break it down into the deliverables (features):

  1. Analysis

  2. Development

    1. Author management

      1. Register account: 2 days (given the previous experience of the same development team)

      2. Edit profile: 1 day

      3. ...



    2. Publication management

      1. Create a publication: ...

      2. Push a publication to Amazon: ...

      3. ...





  3. System testing: ??? (you can estimate it by the number of features, the number of tests, etc.)


You can the cost of each small item similarly. The total cost is just the sum of all item costs. For the schedule, basically you can assume that the analysis, development and system testing will be in sequence, so you can determine their individual schedules (not really 100% true, as system testing could be done before everything is implemented). For the features in development, basically they can be implemented in any order you want. As not all programmers will be working on the same feature, they won't be done in sequence, but it is fare to plan what features will be done in a particular month or week.
Note that with this approach you can plan not only the cost and the schedule, but also other resources needed (e.g., programmers, testers, business analyst, 3rd party software components and tools, hardware) and when.

Uncertainties, changes, monitoring and control


After creating the project plan above, can you just assign people to the tasks and come back again in one year to receive the working system? No. There are way too many uncertainties and changes in a typical project that will throw your project off the track. For example:

  • What if the progress of the development team is slower than planned? (planning risk)

  • What if a programmer quits in the middle of the project? (human risk)

  • What if the framework adopted for the project doesn't work as well as expected? (technology risk)

  • What if the new programmer is not getting along with another programmer? (human risk)

  • What if the testers aren't working well with the programmers? (human risk)

  • What if the testing hardware is delayed by the supplier? (supplier risk)

  • What if the CEO wants to add some new features? (scope change)

  • What if the CEO wants to release the system two months earlier? (schedule change)


Therefore, you (the project manager) must monitor for any potential and actual problems and any deviations from the plan and take actions to correct the problems or deal with changes (control the project). Therefore, in accordance with the project management framework or methodology adopted by your company, you should have phases in the project as inspection and approval points. The phases can be time-based such as monthly or weekly meeting (as in XP or SCRUM) or based on deliverables (e.g., when the author management sub-system is implemented).

Quality as the 4th major constraint


Suppose that the progress of the development team is slower than planned or the CEO wants to add some new features, what would you do? Unfortunately, instead of really fixing the problems by speeding up the team or removing unnecessary features, many project managers will choose to cut the quality by overloading the programmers and decreasing the testing (unit testing embedded in the development, the system testing, etc.). The result is that, the features seem to work, but only in some occasions and will behave incorrectly in others.
Why is quality often the first to get cut? It is because quality is not as visible as the other constraints: scope, cost and schedule. Any deviation in these three can be found easily, but it takes very closed interactions to discover quality deviations. In addition, the longer the problems are covered (e.g., after being deployed), the more money it will cost (e.g., service interruptions, loss of businesses, lots of service calls, training for workarounds, redeployment for the fixes).
Therefore, quality is not an option. It should be considered the 4th top constraints in project management. As mentioned earlier, you should plan, monitor and control for quality in your project (that's why you have all kinds of testing and validation in the project).

Keeping the sponsor happy to fuel the project


What if you only report to the project sponsor (here, the CEO) and other stakeholders in a year? They will lose enthusiasm by then. So, to keep their enthusiasm and more important their commitment and support for the project (that's how to ensure the resources for your project), you should report the project status, deliverables so far and etc. to them regularly. This is like fueling your car regularly on a journey.
Also, after the project is ended (closing), you should provide a final report to the project sponsor and other stakeholders mainly to show that you have delivered the required deliverables in high quality, within cost and schedule. Again, this is to make the project sponsor happy about the project and you for his future support.

Getting long lasting benefits out of the project


Basically, after the project is closed, all you enjoy is the deliverables. However, there is more you can get out of the project. For example, if you have found a best practice with working with that framework or working with a particular stakeholder, you should document it for future use.

Coordination between projects


In addition to the self-publishing platform, your company has other projects supporting the same strategy of enabling authors to self-publish. For example, it has a market research project to identify the needs, a promotion project to promote the service, and etc. Obviously, the projects must be coordinated. For example, it is impossible for you to get the detailed requirements before the market research project identifies them.
Therefore, there needs to be a program manager (e.g., a vice president) to do that (managing the program which consists of the interrelated projects). In addition, the company should adopt a program management framework to ensure proper organization (e.g., a program management committee consisting of the program manager and all the project managers) and processes are in place to support the prioritization and coordination of the projects.

Adopting and tailoring a project management framework


You've seen the key control objectives above for project management. Cobit recommends that your company adopt a project management framework (e.g., based on PMP body of knowledge or PRINCE2) covering the above, with customizations based on project size, risk, complexity and etc.